हॉर्मोन-Full List of Hormones in Hindi

आज के topic list of hormones में हम बात करने वाले है कुछ ऐसे chemicals के बारे में जो हमारी body से बहुत कम amount में निकलते हैं लेकिन हैं हमारे लिए बहुत ही important हैं

hormones हमारी body में होने वाली हर एक छोटी बड़ी activity को कंट्रोल और coordinate करते हैं

Body के Works और Activity को Control करने क लिए दो System एक साथ मिलकर काम करते हैं जिनमे से पहला है Hormone System और दूसरा है Nervous System.

Hormones और Nervous System के Combination से ही हमारी Body एक Master Body बन जाती है जो की हम Humans को दूसरे किसी Animal से अलग करती है ,

दूसरे Animals में भी Hormones और Nervous System दोनों ही होते हैं लेकिन दूसरे Animals में निकलने वाले Hormones का No. काफी काम होता है जिसके कारण हम दूसरे Animals के Comparison में अपनी Body को ज्यादा Advance तरीके से Work करते हुए देखते हैं ,

Discovery of Hormone

आज से लगभग 115 साल पहले 1902 में दो british Physiologist Sir William M. Bayliss और Ernest H ने सबसे पहले सेक्रेटिन हॉर्मोन की Discovery की थी

Sir William M. Bayliss और Ernest H ने सेक्रेटिन हॉर्मोन को human की Small Intestine के पहले हिस्से( Duodenum ) में पहली बार देखा था

सेक्रेट्रिन Hormone एक Polypeptide हॉर्मोन है जो की लगभग 27 Amino Acids से मिलकर बना होता है जिसके बारे हम आगे डिटेल में बात करेंगे

Definition  of Hormones

Hormone Massaging Molecules हैं जो Body  की Endocrine Cells से Release होते हैं और Body के Different Parts में Blood के Through ले जाये जाते हैं, जो Body की Activity को Stimulate(Fast) या Inhibit(slow) करते हैं।

Word Hormone स्टार्लिंग के द्वारा 1905 में दिया गया, जिसका Meaning ग्रीक Language में Stimulation है। पर कुछ Hormone ऐसे भी हैं जो Inhibitor प्रभाव भी Show करते हैं जैसे- सोमेटोस्टेटिन (Somatostanin)

Hormones Nomenclature

कभी कभी हम कुछ होर्मोनेस की spelling को ध्यान से देखें तो अलग अलग books में उनकी spelling में कुछ diffrence देखने मिलता है , जैसे की एस्ट्रोजन जो की एक female sex hormone है इसकी spelling कभी आपको Estrogen देखने मिलेगी कभी Oestrogen.

ऐसा इसलिए है क्यूंकि कुछ country में इनको आज भी उनके Greek origin के नाम से जाना जाता है
ex . ब्रिटिश English में oestrogen और अमेरिकन English में estrogen.

हॅार्मोन एक ऐसा Chemical है जिसे Direct Blood में छोड़ा जाता है, और इनकी life काफी काम होती है , इसलिये इन्हें store कर के नहीं रखा जा सकता।

Classification of Hormones

Hormones के Classification की जब हम बात करते हैं तब हम इन्हे इनके Work Origin और Hormone के Chemical composition के base पर classified कर सकते हैं।

Amino Acid

  1. Epinephrine EPI
  2. Melatonin MT
  3. Triiodothyronine T3
  4. Thyroxine T4

Peptide

  1. Amylin  IAPP
  2. Anti-Müllerian hormone AMH
  3. Adiponectin Acrp
  4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone  ACTH
  5. Angiotensinogen and angiotensin AGT
  6. Antidiuretic hormone ADH
  7. Atrial-natriuretic peptide ) ANP
  8. Brain natriuretic peptide BNP
  9. Calcitonin CT
  10. Cholecystokinin CCK
  11. Hunger suppressant
  12. Corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH
  13. Cortistatin CORT
  14. Enkephalin
  15. Endothelin
  16. Erythropoietin EPO
  17. Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH
  18. Galanin GAL
  19. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide GIP
  20. Gastrin GASGlucagon GCG
  21. Glucagon-
  22. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH
  23. Growth hormone-releasing hormone GHRH
  24. Hepcidin HAMP
  25. Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG.
  26. Human placental lactogen HPL
  27. Growth hormone GH or hGH
  28. Insulin INS
  29. Leptin LEP
  30. Lipotropin LPH
  31. Luteinizing hormone LH
  32. Melanocyte stimulating hormone MSH or α-MSH
  33. Motilin MLN
  34. Orexin
  35. Osteocalcin OCN
  36. Oxytocin OXT
  37. Pancreatic polypeptide
  38. Parathyroid hormone PTH
  39. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-
  40. Prolactin PRL
  41. Prolactin releasing hormone
  42. Relaxin RLN
  43. Renin
  44. Secretin SCT
  45. Somatostatin SRIF
  46. Thrombopoietin TPO
  47. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (or thyrotropin) TSH
  48. thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
  49. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH
  50. Vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP
  51. Guanylin GN .
  52. Uroguanylin UGN

Steroid

  1. Testosterone
  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA
  3. Dihydrotestosterone DHT .
  4. Aldosterone
  5. Estradiol E2
  6. estrogen Estrone
  7. estrogen Estriol E3
  8. progestogen Progesterone
  9. secosteroid Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3)
  10. secosteroid

अब चलिए हम एक एक hormones के उनके नाम ,Short नाम, Glands का नाम जहाँ वो बनते हैं , Particular Cells जहाँ से वो निकलते हैं, Body के उस Organ का नाम जहाँ उसके Receptors होते हैं और होर्मोनेस के body में work को समझने की कोशिश करते हैं.

हम यहाँ HORMONES को 2 लिस्ट में divide कर सकते हैं जहाँ पहली लिस्ट में हम ऐसे Hormones की बात करेंगे जिसमे वो सभी Hormones होंगे जिनका नाम हम अक्सर सुनते रहते हैं और Exams में भी वही पूछे जाते हैं और दूसरी लिस्ट में हम बाकि के बचे हुए Hormones की बात करेंगे

Full List of Hormones in Hindi

Epinephrine

Name- Epinephrine
Short name- EPI
Glands- adrenal gland
Cells- Adrenal medulla / Tyrosine
Receptor- adrenergic receptor
Target Tissue nearly all tissues
Effect- blood pressure, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, etc.

Melatonin

Name- Melatonin
Short name- MT
glands- pineal gland
Cells- Pinealocyte / Tryptophan
Receptor- melatonin receptor
Target Tissue- CNS and peripheral tissue
Effect- circadian rhythm

Calcitonin

Name-Calcitonin
Short Name –CT
Gland- thyroid gland
Cells- parafollicular cell
Effects- CT receptor → cAMP Construct bone, reduce blood Ca2+

Thyroxine

Name- Thyroxine
Short Name- T4
Glands- thyroid gland
Cells- Thyroid Follicular cell / Tyrosine
Receptor- thyroid hormone receptor
Target Tissue-
Effect- similar effect as T3 but much weaker. Converted to T3 in target cells.

corticotropin

Name- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (or corticotropin)
Short Name- ACTH
Glands- anterior pituitary
Cells- corticotrope
Receptor- ACTH receptor → cAMP
Target Tissue-
Effect- synthesis of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and androgens) in adrenocortical cells

Triiodothyronine

Name- Triiodothyronine
Short name- T3
Glands- peripheral tissue of thyroid gland
Cells- Thyroid Follicular cell / Tyrosine
Receptor- thyroid hormone receptor
Target Tissue- nearly every cell in the body
Effect- increased metabolism

Vasopressin

Name- Antidiuretic hormone (or vasopressin, arginine vasopressin)
Short Name- ADH
Glands- posterior pituitary
Cells- Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons in hypothalamus
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in posterior pituitary
Receptor- AVPRs, VACM-1
Target Tissue-
Effect- retention of water in kidneys
moderate vasoconstriction
Release ACTH in anterior pituitary

Calcitriol

Name- Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3)
Short Name-
Chemical class- secosteroid
glands- skin/proximal tubule of kidneys
Receptor- VDR
Effect- Active form of vitamin D3
Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH

Vasopressin

Name- Antidiuretic hormone(or vasopressin, arginine vasopressin)
Short Name- ADH
Gland- posterior pituitary
Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons in hypothalamus
Magnocellular neurosecretory cellsin posterior pituitary AVPRs, VACM-1
retention of water in kidneys
moderate vasoconstriction
Release ACTH in anterior pituitary

Aldosterone

Name- Aldosterone
Short Name-
Chemical class- mineralocorticoid
glands- adrenal cortex (zona glomerulosa)
Receptor- MR
Effect- Increase blood volume by reabsorption of sodium in kidneys (primarily)
Potassium and H+ secretion in kidney.

Progesterone

Name- Progesterone
Chemical class- progestogen
Short Name-
glands- ovary, adrenal glands, placenta (when pregnant)
Granulosa cells theca cells of ovary
Receptor- PR
Effect- Support pregnancy:[9]
Convert endometrium to secretory stage
Make cervical mucus permeable to sperm
Inhibit immune response, e.g. towards the human embryo.
Decrease uterine smooth muscle contractility[9]
Inhibit lactation
Inhibit onset of labor
Support fetal production of adrenal mineralo- and glucosteroids
Other:
Raise epidermal growth factor-1 levels
Increase core temperature during ovulation[10]
Reduce spasm and relax smooth muscle (widen bronchi and regulate mucus)
Antiinflammatory. Regulate immune response
Reduce gall-bladder activity[11]
Normalize blood clotting and vascular tone, zinc and copper levels, cell oxygen levels, and use of fat stores for energy
Assist in thyroid function and bone growth by osteoblasts
Resilience in bone, teeth, gums, joint, tendon, ligament and skin healing by regulating collagen
Nerve function and healing by regulating myelin
Prevent endometrial cancer by regulating effects of oestrogen

Cholecystokinin

Name- Cholecystokinin
Short Name- CCK
Glands- duodenum
Cells-
Receptor- CCK receptor
Target Tissue-
Effect- Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas
Release of bile from gallbladder Hunger suppressant

Prostaglandins

Name- Prostaglandins
Short Name- PG
glands- seminal vesicle
Cells-
Receptor- prostaglandin receptor
Target Tissue-
Effect- vasodilation

Leukotrienes

Name- Leukotrienes
Short Name- LT
glands- Blood
Cells- white blood cells
Receptor- G protein-coupled receptors
Target Tissue- Blood
Effect- increase vascular permeability

Thromboxane

Name- Thromboxane
Short Name- TXA2
glands- Blood
Cells- platelets
Receptor- thromboxane receptor
Target Tissue-
Effect- vasoconstriction, Platelet Aggregation

Amylin

Name- Amylin
Short Name- IAPP
glands- pancreas
Cells – pancreatic β-cells
Receptor -amylin receptor
Target Tissue-
Effect – slowing down gastric emptying, inhibition of digestive secretion, and reducing food intake

Anti-Müllerian

Name- Anti-Müllerian hormone
Short Name- AMH
glands- testes
Cells- Sertoli cell
Receptor- AMHR2
Target Tissue-
Effect- Inhibit release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary

Adiponectin

Name- Adiponectin
Short Name- Acrp30
glands- adipose tissue
Cells-
Receptor- adiponectin receptors
Target Tissue-
Effect –

Angiotensinogen

Name- Angiotensinogen and angiotensin
Short Name- AGT
glands- liver
Cells-
Receptor- angiotensin receptor → IP3
Target Tissue-
Effect- vasoconstriction
release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex dipsogen.

Atriopeptin

Name- Atrial-natriuretic peptide (or atriopeptin)
Short Name- ANP
glands- heart
Cells-
Receptor- ANP receptor → cGMP
Target Tissue-
Effect-

Brain Natriuretic Peptide

Name- Brain natriuretic peptide
Short Name- BNP
glands- heart
Cells- Cardiac myocytes
Receptor- NPR
Target Tissue-
Effect- (To a minor degree than ANP) reduce blood pressure by:
reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats

Testosterone

Name-Testosterone
Short Name –
Class- androgen
glands-testes, ovary
Leydig cells
Receptor- AR
Effect- libido, Anabolic: growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density, growth and strength,
Virilizing: maturation of sex organs, formation of scrotum, deepening of voice, growth of beard and axillary hair.

Renin

Renin
Kidney
Juxtaglomerular cells
Activates the renin–angiotensin system by producing angiotensin I of angiotensinogen

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

Name- Corticotropin-releasing hormone
Short Name – CRH
glands -hypothalamus
Cells –
Receptor -CRF1 → cAMP
Target Tissue-
Effect – Release ACTH from anterior pituitary

Cortistatin

Name- Cortistatin
Short Name- CORT
glands- cerebral cortex
Cells- inhibitory neurons
Receptor- Somatostatin receptor
Target Tissue-
Effect- depression of neuronal activity; induction of slow-wave sleep; reduction of locomotor activity; activation of cation selective currents not responsive to somatostatin.

Enkephalin

Name- Enkephalin
Short Name –
glands- Kidney
Cells- Chromaffin cells
Receptor- Opioid receptor
Target Tissue-
Effect- Regulate pain

Endothelin

Name- Endothelin
Short Name-
glands- Vascular endothelium
Cells- Endothelial cells
Receptor- ET receptor
Target Tissue-
Effect- Smooth muscle contraction of medium-sized vessels

Erythropoietin

Name- Erythropoietin
Short Name- EPO
glands- kidney
Cells- Extraglomerular mesangial cells
Receptor- EpoR
Target Tissue-
Effect- Stimulate erythrocyte production

Enkephalin

Name- Enkephalin
Short Name-
Kidney
Chromaffin cells
Opioid receptor
Regulate pain

Endothelin

Name-Endothelin
Short Name-
Vascular endothelium
Endothelial cells
ET receptor
Smooth muscle contraction of medium-sized vessels

Cortistatin

Name- Cortistatin
Short Name- CORT
cerebral cortex
inhibitory neurons
Somatostatin receptor
depression of neuronal activity; induction of slow-wave sleep; reduction of locomotor activity; activation of cation selective currents not responsive to somatostatin

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

Name-Corticotropin-releasing hormone
CRH hypothalamus
CRF1 → cAMP Release ACTH from anterior pituitary

Cholecystokinin

Name- Cholecystokinin
Short Name- CCK
duodenum
CCK receptor
Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas
Release of bile from gallbladder
Hunger suppressant

Brain Natriuretic Peptide

Name- Brain natriuretic peptide
Short Name- BNP
heart
Cardiac myocytes
NPR
(To a minor degree than ANP) reduce blood pressure by:
reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats

Atriopeptin

Name- Atrial-natriuretic peptide (or atriopeptin)
Short Name- ANP
heart
ANP receptor → cGMP

Anti-Müllerian Hormone

Name-Anti-Müllerian hormone (or Müllerian inhibiting factor or hormone)
Short Name -AMH
testes
Sertoli cell
AMHR2
Inhibit release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary

Angiotensin

Name- Angiotensinogen and angiotensin
Short Name -AGT
liver
angiotensin receptor → IP3 vasoconstriction
release of aldosterone from adrenal cortexdipsogen.

Amylin

Name- Amylin (or Islet Amyloid Polypeptide)
Short Name -IAPP
pancreas
pancreatic β-cells
amylin receptor
slowing down gastric emptying, inhibition of digestive secretion, and reducing food intake

Corticotropin

Name- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (or corticotropin)
Short Name- ACTH
anterior pituitary
corticotrope
ACTH receptor→ cAMP synthesis of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and androgens) in adrenocortical cells

Adiponectin

Name- Adiponectin
Short Name-
Acrp30 adipose tissue
adiponectin receptors

Enkephalin

Enkephalin
Kidney
Chromaffin cells
Opioid receptor
Regulate pain
Endothelin Vascular endothelium Endothelial cells ET receptor Smooth muscle contraction of medium-sized vessels

Ghrelin

Ghrelin
stomach
P/D1 cell
ghrelin receptor
Stimulate appetite,
secretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland

Inhibin

Inhibin
testes, ovary, fetus
Sertoli cells of testes
granulosa cells of ovary
trophoblasts in fetus
anterior pituitary
Inhibit production of FSH

Orexin

Orexin
hypothalamus
OX1, OX2
wakefulness and increased energy expenditure, increased appetite

Pancreatic Polypeptide

Pancreatic polypeptide
Pancreas
PP cells
pancreatic polypeptide
receptor 1
Self-regulation of pancreatic secretions (endocrine and exocrine). It also affects hepatic glycogen levels and gastrointestinal secretions.

Dehydroepiandrosterone

Name- Dehydroepiandrosterone
Short Name –
Chemical class-androgen
DHEA
glands – testes, ovary, kidney
Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells of kidney
theca cells of ovary
Leydig cells of testes
Receptor- AR
Effect- Virilization, एनाबोलिक

Androstenedione

androgen
Name-Androstenedione
Short Name-
glands- adrenal glands, gonads
Receptor- AR
Effect- Substrate for oestrogen

Dihydrotestosterone

androgen
Name- Dihydrotestosterone
Short Name-DHT
glands- multiple
Receptor-AR
Effect- 5-DHT or DHT is a male reproductive hormone that targets the prostate gland, bulbourethral gland, seminal vesicles, penis and scrotum and promotes growth/mitosis/cell maturation and differentiation. Testosterone is converted to 5-DHT by 5alpha-reductase, usually with in the target tissues of 5-DHT because of the need for high concentrations of 5-dht to produce the physiological effects.

 

Estradiol

Name- Estradiol
Short Name-
Chemical class- estrogen
E2
glands- females: ovary, males testes females: granulosa cells, males: Sertoli cell
Receptor- ER
Effect- Females:
Structural:
promote formation of female secondary sex characteristics
stimulate endometrial growth
increase uterine growth
maintenance of blood vessels and skin
reduce bone resorption
increase hepatic production of binding proteins
Coagulation:

increase circulating level of factors 2, 7, 9, 10, antithrombin III, plasminogen
increase platelet adhesiveness
Fluid balance:

salt (sodium) and water retention
increase growth hormone
increase cortisol, SHBG
Gastrointestinal tract:

reduce bowel motility
increase cholesterol in bile
Lung function:
promote lung function by supporting alveoli.[7]
Males: Prevent apoptosis of germ cells[8]

Estrone

Name- Estrone
Short Name-
Chemical class- estrogen
ovary
glands- granulosa cells, Adipocytes
Receptor- ER

Estriol

Name- Estriol
Short Name-
Chemical class- estrogen
E3
placenta
glands- syncytiotrophoblast
Receptor – ER

Cortisol

Name- Cortisol
Short Name –
Chemical class-glucocorticoid
glands- adrenal cortex (zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells)
Receptor- GR
Effect- Stimulation of gluconeogenesis
Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues Stimulation of fat breakdown in adipose tissue anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive

 

Calcidiol

Name- Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin )
Chemical class- secosteroid
Short Name- D3
glands- skin/proximal tubule of kidneys
Receptor-VDR
Effect- Inactive form of vitamin D3

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